AC drives, also known as variable frequency drives (VFDs), are an essential component in modern industrial control systems. These devices control the speed, torque, and direction of AC motors, which are widely used in a variety of applications such as pumps, fans, and conveyors. The use of AC drives results in energy savings, increased productivity, and improved process control. AC drives work by converting the incoming AC power into a controlled DC voltage. This DC voltage is then converted back into a controlled AC voltage to drive the motor. The control of the AC voltage results in the control of the motor speed and torque. The speed of an AC motor can be controlled by adjusting the frequency of the AC voltage supplied to the motor. AC drives use pulse width modulation (PWM) techniques to generate a variable frequency AC waveform. This waveform is then applied to the motor, resulting in the control of motor speed.